Open Access Journals

Title : A Study on clinical evaluation and prescribing patter of drugs used in schizophrenia patients
Authors : Swarajyalaxmi S.,P. Kranthi Raju

The prospective observational study conducted at Swasthik Samalochana Hospital, Warangal during February2013-July 2013. The study enrolled 150 in-patients and out-patients with Schizophrenia were included in the study who met inclusion criteria, after obtaining their informed consent. In 150 Patients in the Psychiatry clinic were characterized into based on predominant symptoms abnormal behavior, Hallucinations. In Psychological patients 51% males and 48% females were suffering schizophrenia disorder and various causes are 43.3% of family history, 12.6% of alcoholic, 6.6% family problems, 7.3% of thyroid disorders, 1.3% of post-menopausal problems. In this study nearly 50% of the patients had 3 risk factors primarily like family history, alcohol, financial problems. The necessity of patient counseling by a clinical pharmacist plays a major role in educational interventions and healthy life style modifications were an essential part in the prevention of schizophrenia and different psychological disorders of central nervous system. Abnormal behaviour, hallucinations and aggressive are the most predominant symptoms in this study.

Keywords : Schizophrenia , hallucinations , psychological patients , psychiatry clinic
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Title : Assessment of Heavy Metals Content and Their Effects on Toxicity of Acmella Uliginosa Sw.
Authors : Latifou Lagnika,Toussaint Sourou Odjougbele,Anatole Laleye,Ambaliou Sanni

The use of medicinal plants has increased in recent decades due to their affordability and especially because of the assumption that natural remedies are safe. Some medicinal plants are used as leafy vegetable. In Bénin, Acmella uliginosa is one of these medicinal plants used as green leafy vegetable. Unfortunately, they are contaminated by environmental and industrial waste such as heavy metals. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the heavy metals (As, Pb, Cd, Hg, Cu, Mn and Zn) contents of Acmella uliginosa, harvested in Cotonou (CAU) and Pobè (PAU) and to assess and compare the oral acute toxicity of the two samples. The heavy metals content was assessed by anodic and cathodic stripping voltammetry method. The oral acute toxicity of aqueous extracts was evaluated following the guidelines N° 423 of the Organization of Cooperation for Economic Development. The phytochemical study was assessed by thin layer chromatography (TLC) method. The heavy metal analysis revealed the presence of arsenic, lead, mercury, copper, manganese, and zinc in Cotonou sample while only zinc, manganese and copper are present in sample collected in Pobè. The heavy metals concentrations range from 0.028 ± 0.007 to 0.108 ± 0.052. Cadmium is absent in studied samples. At a dose of 2000mg/kg body weight, no adverse effects were recorded in Pobè sample in contrary to sample collected at Cotonou. The results showed that Acmella uliginosa harvested in Pobé (PAU) does not contained toxic heavy metals while sample from Cotonou (CAU) contained various heavy metals. Aqueous extract of PAU has no toxicity effect in contrary to Cotonou sample. The toxicity of A. ulignosa collected in Cotonou could be due the presence of heavy metals.

Keywords : heavy metals , Acmella uliginosa , acute toxicity
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Title : Toxicological effect of aqueous extracts of Croton lobatus L. and Schrankia leptocarpa L. in rats model
Authors : Latifou Lagnika,Mounirou Tchachedre,Anatole Laleye,Ambaliou Sanni

In a preliminary evaluation of ethnobotanically selected Beninese medicinal plants for their pharmacological activity, Croton lobatus L. (Euphorbiaceae) and Schrankia leptocarpa (Mimosaceae) showed interesting activities against Plasmodium and microbial strains. Considering these biological activities and the extensive use of these plants in traditional medicine, the toxicological profile of their aqueous extracts was assessed using oral acute toxicity in the rat model. Acute toxicity of aqueous extracts of tested plants was assessed at a dose of 2000 mg/kg as per Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, guideline n° 423. The rats were observed for signs of toxicity or death after administration of extracts. Distilled water was used for control rats. Blood samples were collected and used to evaluate biochemistry and hematology parameters. Histopathological evaluation was also done on liver and kidney. The results revealed that all tested animals were physically active during the test. No signs of toxicity or morbidity in rats treated with extracts were observed. There were no significant variations in the biochemical and hematological parameters between rats treated with aqueous extract of Schrankia leptocarapa and those received distilled water. A significant decrease of serum alanine aminotransferase and Creatinine (P = 0.01) level was observed in rats treated with aqueous extract of Croton lobatus while a significantly increased level of RBC (P = 0.04) and Hematocrit (P = 0.01). Histopathological examination of liver and kidney sections of rats treated with 2000 mg/kg body weight of aqueous extracts of Croton lobatus, Schrankia leptocarpa did not show any changes when compare to control rats. These results indicate that the oral administration of aqueous extracts (decoction) of Croton lobatus and Schrankia leptocarpa did not produce any significant toxic effect in rats.

Keywords : Biochemical , heamatological , histopathology , toxicity , Croton lobatus , Schrankia leptocarpa ,
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Title : Study the concentrations of Cd, Pb, Ni, Zn and microbial quality in some kinds of candy
Authors : Amjad Turkey,Ithar Kamil Al-Mayaly

Twenty samples of candy sweet were related to Turkish and china's companies collected from local Iraqi markets to measure the concentrations of some heavy metals (Cd, Pb , Ni and Zn) , also evaluate the microbial quality includes: bacteria and fungi in these tested products. The results revealed that most of studied samples do not exceed the acceptable values were proposed from both WHO and Iraqi standards except the samples N and T. The same results were recorded for Pb concentrations except the J, L and S samples which recorded 0.081,0.071 and 0.092 ppm , respectively. The concentrations of Ni recorded 0.03,0.05,nil,nil,0.06 and 0.01 ppm , respectively in the samples F,I,L,R and 20.The previous values less than the acceptable limits but other exceed thes values, while the samples do not recorded values that exceed the acceptable limits of Zn in WHO or Iraqi standards. Bacterial growth was recognize in the samples A,C,I,J,L,O,P,Q and R with numbers 46,9,31,11,1,11,24,19 and CFU\g , respectively. Also , yeast found in the following studied samples F,G,J,L,M,N and T, respectively. but do not recorded in other samples, while molds were founding with the following numbers 1,34,39,11,17,7,16,17,9,6,25,13,29 and 8 CFU\ g in the samples A,B,C,D,E,G,I,J,K,N,O,P,Q and R, respectively . According to the previous results, it can conclude that the tested samples of candy not suitable for healthy use by children.

Keywords : food contamination , heavy metals , microbial contamination of food
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Title : Phytochemical screening and bioevaluation of medicinal plant Stachytarpheta indica(L.)Vahl.
Authors : Sunita Bhatnagar,Sudeep Ranjan Sahoo,Rashmi Ranjan Dash

Leaf and stem solvent extracts of Stachytarpheta indica were subjected to phytochemical analysis, cytotoxic activity and their antioxidant potential. Both the extracts were rich in phytochemicals like alkaloid, saponins, tannins and phlobotanins. Besides this both the samples were moderate in carbohydrates but rich in protein content. Extracts depicted mild cytotoxic activity against brine shrimp mortality assay and good antioxidant activity in DPPH assay.

Keywords : Stachytarpheta indica , antioxidant , cytotoxic , alkaloid , saponins , tannins and phlobotanins
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Title : Toxicity Analysis of different medicinal plant extracts in Swiss Albino Mice
Authors : jayachitra A,gopal P,rajalakshmi A,krithiga N

Plants and their derivatives played a key role in world health and have long been known to possess biological activity. The importance of biological evaluations of plants derived agents used in the treatment of various diseases. The data of the acute toxicity studies (oral) on medicinal plants obtained in order to increase the confidence in its safety to human, particularly for use in the development of pharmaceuticals. The aim of this work was to study the effects of repeated dosage of two concentration of plant extracts such as 400mg/kg and 600mg/kg were administered to Swiss albino mice daily for 15 days (orally) to check the safety profile of plant extracts. Mice were randomly selected and each group contains three animals, and analyse the physical parameters, biochemical parameters and liver toxicity were studied at the end of the experiment and analyse the histopathological studies to done for 400mg/kg of group animals assess any organ specific toxicity. From the study there was no changes were observed in liver section when compared with treated and control groups.

Keywords : Plant Extracts , Toxicity , Swiss Albino Mice , AST , ALT , Histopathology
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Title : Gymnema sylvestre – A Key for Diabetes Management – A Review
Authors : Subramaniyan Vijayakumar,Srinivasan Prabhu

Traditional medicines derived from medicinal plants are used by about 60 per cent world population. Diabetes is an important human ailment officiating many from various walk of life in different countries including India. It providing to a major health problem, especially in the urban area: Gymnema sylvestre R.Br. (Asclepiadaceae) is a herb distributed throughout the world. The leaves of the plant are widely used for the treatment of diabetes and as diuretic in India proprietary medicine. G. sylvestre, an Ayurvedic herb, came to be known as “destroyer of sugar” because, in ancient times, Ayurvedia physicians observed that chewing a few leaves of G. sylvestre suppressed the taste of sugar. It is used totally all over India for controlling blood sugar. Several bio-active compounds have been isolated from the herb for diabetes care. It is believed to be used in dyspepsia, constipation, jaundice, haemorrhoids, cardiopathy, asthma, bronchitis and leucoderma. A scrutiny of literature revealed some notable pharmacological activities of the plant such as anti diabetic, antiobesity, hypolipidaemic, antimicrobial, free radical scavenging and anti-inflammatory. The present review is an attempton various ethanobotanical and traditional uses, phytochemical and pharmacological approaches of G. sylvestre .

Keywords : Gymnema sylvestre , Ethanobotanical uses , phytochemistry , pharmacological activities
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Title : In-Vitro Pharmacological Activity of Essential Oil –Linalool from Jasminum Polyantham
Authors : B. Rekha,C. Muthukumar, S.V. Bakiyalakshmi,G. Shakila

An essential oil is a concentrated hydrophobic liquid containing volatile aroma compounds from plants. Linalool-is a naturally occurring terpene alcohol chemical found in many flowers and spice plants with many commercial applications. In this present study the linalool was isolated from Jasminum polyanthum and its pharmacological activities such as Anti Spasmolytic and Anti inflammatory were analyzed by In vitro method. The Jasminum polyanthum and linolool possesses the anti spasmodic activity. The prevention value of inhibition or stimulation the Jasminum polyanthum and Linolool contains 50% and 65% of Activity. The Jasminum polyanthum shows 47.30% of anti inflammatory activity where as the Linolool shows high activity 70% respectively. From this study the isolated linalool essential oil possess the anti spasmodic activity which can be applied in pharmacy for the treatment of muscle problems and other related problems.

Keywords : Essential oil , Linalool , Jasminum polyanthum , Anti Spasmolytic and Anti inflammatory
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Title : Oxytocin A potential novel therapeutic agent in treatment of autism
Authors : Tarek Abdelaal,Mohamed Abbas

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by varying deficits in social interactions, communication, and learning, as well as stereotypic behaviors. Despite the significant increasing rates of ASD during the last two decades, there are few clues for its exact pathogenesis, delaying early detection and effective intervention. Thus, identifying causes and treatments is imperative. So far, there are no known efficacious treatments for the core social symptoms, although effects on repetitive behaviors are indicated with some data. During the past decade oxytocin (OT) research has shown a major upsurge. The beneficial roles of OT on social functioning raise the question regarding its potential usefulness in ASD management. If clinical application of OT in the treatment of ASD proves successful then it may introduce a new hope for afflicted individuals and their families. Fortunately pioneering clinical studies support this notion, however, more research should go on to resolve issues concerning clear mechanisms by which OT modulates social behavior before its real introduction for clinical application. Also probable adverse affects must be thoroughly investigated to ensure safe treatment outcomes.

Keywords : Autism , oxytocin , social behavior , mind reading , eye contact
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Title : Toxicity assessment of Aluminium on vermicomposting ability of Eudrilus eugeniae (Kinberg) on leaf litter
Authors : Annapoorani C.A

Vermicomposting technology is one of the best options available for the treatment of organics-rich solid wastes. In which earth worm converts biodegradable garbage into high quality manure and plays a key role in soil biology and they serve as versatile natural bioreactors to harness energy and destroy soil pathogens. The worms feed voraciously on all biodegradable wastes. There is an instance of chemical toxicity among non target organisms like earthworms etc, in agricultural lands due to pollution of chemical companies and factories. In the present investigation vermicomposting ability of earthworms Eudrilus eugeniae were measured experimentally by exposing in moist leaf litter with Aluminium. The morphological changes observed during the exposure of animals were observed in laboratory conditions and appears to impair the different stages of reproductive cycle of the worms thereby resulting in the onset of reduced vermicomposting ability of the earthworm.

Keywords : Eudrilus eugeniae , vermicomposting , toxicity , aluminium , exposure
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Pharmacology & Toxicology Research (ISSN 2349-4581) is a peer-reviewed journal with indexing and abstracting in many databases. It covers a broad spectrum of articles focusing on various chemically distinctive therapeutic and toxic agents. It encourages submissions from diverse fields related to Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology Research, including contributions from clinical trials. This journal is committed to publishing comprehensive research articles, critical reviews, case reports, mini-reviews, and short communications exclusively within the realms of toxicology and clinical pharmacology. It encompasses various aspects of clinical pharmacology, such as pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, pharmacogenetics, pharmacoepidemiology, pharmacovigilance, pharmacotherapy, therapeutic drug monitoring, drug interactions, randomized controlled clinical trials, and any other pertinent topics within the field.

Young authors including early career scientists, assistant professors, post doctoral fellows, Ph.D., M.S. & M.D. students are highly encouraged to share their ideas about the latest topics in their scientific expertise as a review or mini review.

Following categories of manuscript is considered for publication:

  • Research Article
  • Review Article
  • Case Study
  • Clinical Trial
  • Community Case Study
  • Data Report
  • Opinion
  • Commentary
  • News & Highlights
  • Mini Review
  • Short Research Communication
  • Letter to the Editor
  • Methods & Protocol
  • Book Review
  • Negative Results

Young authors including early career scientists, assistant professors, post doctoral fellows, M.Phil, Ph.D., M.S. & M.D. students are highly encouraged to submit a review article or mini review. When you decide to write a review article for our journal, you have to first create a brief summary of the review article. This brief summary includes title, authors details, abstract, a graphical abstract, a short details about your review article and suitable references. Submit this brief summary to the journal. If your proposal is found suitable, our academic editors will help you during the development of your article. During the submission of the proposal select the option “review proposal” in the manuscript submission system.

Terms of submission

The scientific information provided in manuscripts must be relevant and useful for the scientific and agricultural community, and also not currently under consideration or published by another journal/magazine/newsletter/or any other print and e-platform. The manuscript must be approved by all the co-authors for the contents and submission for publication in the journal. There is no page limit for manuscript. Long research articles and extensive reviews are also published by journals.

No word limit for full length research and review articles.

Area of Publication

The scope of the journal encompasses a wide range of topics within the field of pharmacology and toxicology, including experimental animal pharmacology and toxicology, toxicity and metabolism studies, biochemical cellular pharmacology and toxicology, ethnopharmacology, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, therapeutic drug monitoring, drug interactions, pharmacogenetics, pharmacoepidemiology, pharmacovigilance, pharmacoeconomics, computational prediction of pharmacology, randomized controlled clinical trials, herb-drug interactions, herbal medicine, drug development, and rational pharmacology. The journal aims to provide a comprehensive platform for the dissemination of research findings and advancements across these diverse areas, contributing to the overall understanding and development of pharmacological and toxicological sciences.

Peer Review

Manuscripts are sent for peer review to independent reviewers/ academic editors.

Preparation of the Manuscript

Manuscript can be submitted by any of the contributing author(s). Manuscript files should be submitted only in Microsoft Word format (doc or docx).

Title and Authorship Information

The following information should be included with manuscript title

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Title should be short & informative, to be typed in only the first letter of the first word capital; also, after colon or hyphen, first letter of the first word capital. Latin names are to be given in italics. Names of authors to be typed in first letters capital . Author for correspondence should be indicated with an asterisk (*).

Each manuscript must include Graphical abstract, Abstract/Summary, Keywords, Introduction, Conclusions, Conflict of Interest (if any), Acknowledgement (if any), Funding statement (if any), Abbreviations (if any), and References.

In case of Short Research Communication and Research Article, Materials and Methods, Results & Discussion should be included.

Authors of each manuscrits should also clearly mention the categories of manuscript as following:

Category of manuscript: Review Article, Research Article, Case Study, Clinical Trial , Community Case Study, Data Report, Opinion, Commentary, News & Highlights, Mini Review, Short Research Communication, Letter to the Editor, Methods & Protocols, Book Review, Negative Results.


Tables should be cited consecutively in the text. Every table must have a descriptive title and if numerical measurements are given, the units should be included in the column heading. Vertical rules should not be used.


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Graphical Abstract (Optional)

Each manuscript must be submitted along with a graphical abstract. It should be designed in such a way so that visual representation will be interactive along with showing scientific summary of the article.


All references should be listed consecutively, as they appeared in the text at the end of the manuscript. References should be in APA style.

In-text citation style:

In text citation should be done using numbers in square brackets. e.g., “ inflammation, and cancer [1–3].”; “ cause severe diseases [4, 5]”.

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Plagiarism checking facility will be provided to authors. It is the responsibility of authors to prepare their manuscript without plagiarism. Plagiarism report will be sent to the authors, and they should add necessary corrections in the manuscript if required. Any kind of plagiarism is not acceptable. Even after acceptance or publication, if plagiarism is reported in the manuscript, it will be retracted.

Article Processing Charges: 3500 INR per Manuscript. Authors should have to submit the charges after acceptance of manuscript.

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Statement of Human and Animal Rights

In the research work where human subjects or material were involved, all authors should clearly declare that entire experiment work was done as per ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (both institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2000 and 2008. In case of animal experiments, authors should clearly reveal that all experimental procedures were done according to institutional and national guidelines for animal care and laboratory use.

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Patients have a right to privacy that should not be infringed without informed consent. Identifying information, including patients' names, initials, or hospital numbers, should not be published in written descriptions, photographs, and pedigrees unless the information is essential for scientific purposes and the patient (or parent or guardian) provides written informed consent for publication. Authors should also identify individuals who provide writing assistance and disclose the funding source for this assistance. Identifying details should be omitted if they are not essential. Complete anonymity is difficult to achieve; however, informed consent should be obtained if there is any doubt. For example, masking the eye region in photographs of patients is inadequate to ensure anonymity. If identifying characteristics are altered to protect the patient, such as in genetic pedigrees, authors should guarantee that alterations do not distort scientific meaning.

Publication Ethics and Publication Malpractice Statement

Editor’s responsibilities

Editors are responsible for taking the decision to publish a submitted manuscript on the basis of quality, originality, scope and relevance. Editor and editorial staff will maintain the necessary confidentiality of the manuscript and will not use it for any other purpose.

Reviewer’s responsibilities

Reviewers should screen the manuscript for various quality parameters and provide the relevant comments to the editors, which helps them in decision making. Reviewers must carefully check the literature citation, writing quality, experiment setup and scientific relevance of results. A special emphasis will be given on plagiarism checking of manuscript. Reviewers will also maintain the necessary confidentiality of the manuscript and will not use it for any other purpose. Conflicts of interest regarding collaboration with authors of submitted manuscript must be disclosed to the editor, and then excluded from the review process.

Author’s responsibilities

Manuscript submitted to our journal should not be published in any other journal, and also not currently under consideration by another journal. The manuscript must be approved by all the co-authors for their scientific contents and submission for publication in the journal.

Authors should provide the details of their experimental work so that others may replicate the experiments. Authors should prepare their raw data and submit it to editors/reviewers upon request.

Any kind of fraud or unethical practices like Fabrication/ Falsification of Data, Plagiarism, Unacceptable Author Contribution, Citation Manipulation, Concurrent Submissions, and Redundant Publications are totally unacceptable. All authors must give a clear statement that no unethical practices are involved in this research work. All authors have a responsibility to disclose the conflicts of interests and financial support for work, if any.

After publication of the manuscript, if any error is found in research work, the chief-editor should be immediately informed. After deep discussion with the research team, the manuscript will be corrected or even withdrawn.

Literature source for ethical standard

  • Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE). Code of Conduct and Best-Practice Guidelines for Journal Editors.
  • Graf C, Wager E, Bowman A, Fiack S, Scott-Lichter D, Robinson A. Best Practice Guidelines on Publication Ethics: a publisher's perspective. Int J Clin Pract Suppl. 2007 Jan;61(152):1-26.
  • International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals: Writing and Editing for Biomedical Publication. 2006.
  • American Psychological Association. Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct, Section 8 ‘Research and Publication’.
  • American Chemical Society. Ethical Guidelines.