|Title : Orobanche Aegyptiaca: An Important Parasitic Weed of Indian Mustard|
|Authors : Sushma Yadav,P. K. Rai,Sanjeev Kumar, Prashant Yadav|
Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) is a major edible oilseed crop of India. This crop has many biotic and abiotic challenges leading to limit its optimum production potential. Among various biotic stresses, a parasitic week, Orobanche is becoming very serious problem in major mustard growing areas. It is an achlorophilus, annual parasitic weed which attaches to the mustard roots and obtained its nutrition from the mustard plant and causes massive yield losses. In present article, the life cycle of Orobanche, its mode of parasitism and available management techniques are presented.
|Keywords : Orobanche aegyptiaca , Parasitic , Rapeseed-mustard , Biotic , Abiotic|
|Title : Underutilized Bean: Nutritional Value and Biological Activity of Winged Bean|
|Authors : Sarvendra Kunwar,Rayees Ahmad Lone,Vijay Kumar Shukla,Chandra Shekhar Mohanty,Suresh Chandra Sati|
Winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobusl L.) is the rich source of protein and oil range to be 28-40% and 15- 18% respectively. It also contains different types of medicinally impotent bio-active metabolites including phenolic compounds. Phenolic compounds provide valuable health promoting antioxidants, whereas protein is responsible for nutritional quality. Therefore, it has potential to be future nutritional leguminous crops. The roots of winged bean have nodules that play important role in nitrogen fixation, so former need very little cost to grow this crop.
|Keywords : Winged bean , Psophocarpus tetragonolobus L. , Soybean of the tropics , Poor man's food , Antioxidants|
|Title : Pollinizers for Temperate Fruit Crops Production|
|Authors : C. Ravindran,R. Balakumbahan|
India is the second largest producer of fruits next to China and productivity is significantly low as compared to otherdeveloped countries. The majority of the temperate fruit crops and nuts are being cultivated in the north-western Himalayan, north eastern and small areas are lies in upper pulney hills in Tamil Nadu. High altitude and temperate regions are capable to produce high yield and good quality fruits. But the foothill where the chilling and pollinizers is insufficient adversely affects the yield and quality. In India, majority of the temperate fruits were introduced from other parts of the world and some are indigenous to India like walnuts and wild apple species. Therefore, the improvement of the temperate fruits and nuts were taken place mainly through introduction of promising varieties. The exotic species and cultivars are still the backbone of fruit production in India particularly for apple, pear, peach, plum and cherry. Pollinizers used to denote trees of those varieties which cross pollinate flowers of another variety, particularly, the commercial varieties. Varieties such as Golden delicious, Red Gold etc., are the pollinizers for Red delicious. It is a term borrowed from the American who use it to describe a producer of pollen.
|Keywords : Crops , Orchard lay out , Pollinizers , Self -fruitful , Fruit quality and Yield|
|Title : Implication of Superabsorbent Hydrogel (SH) in Agriculture: A Review|
|Authors : Arindam Ghosh, Ananya Ghosh|
Global water demand by 2030 is probable to be 50% higher than today. Nowadays water management is considered one of the major challenges for all countries in arid and semi-arid regions. Superabsorbent Hydrogels are a promising management option to increase the water use efficiency in agriculture. Research evidence suggests that when the soil is treated with water hydrogel composite the water volumetric content of the soil increases significantly and when the surrounding soil dries, the stored water is released back slowly into the soil.
|Keywords : Hydrogel , Water management , Moisture conservation , Superabsorbent hydrogels , Plant-nutrient carriers|
|Title : Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Sensors: Tools For Next Generation Horticulture|
|Authors : T. Shuprajhaa,P. Suresh Kumar ,S. Uma|
A major shift in area towards the horticultural crop cultivation has been witnessed in India. Various factors such as rainfall, temperature, humidity, geographical conditions play an important role in this decision-making process and to make the farming profitable. With the need for better crops, the adoption of years old agricultural methodologies would no longer suffice. Necessity to cope with the tremendous need for healthy food, automated farming practices came into picture in the early twentieth century. With the advent of AI, scientists/farmers can manage/ solve various complex problems without human intervention. AI could also assist the farmers to predict the expected financial trend for any particular crop and plan accordingly. A major part of horticultural revolution happened with the introduction of soft computing, sensors and artificial intelligence (AI). An efficient public-private partnership model can enable to bridge the gap between technological advancements and India's horticultural sector.
|Keywords : Artificial Intelligence , Horticulture , Sensors , Vaniability , Capability|
|Title : Application of Ozone Technology in Enhancing Quality of Major Cereals|
|Authors : Supriya Priyadarsani,Jaiprakash Bisen|
Using ozone as a non-thermal food technique is both economical and environmentally friendly. It is extensively used in cereals to degrade mycotoxin and remove microbial contaminants. An overview of ozone's effectiveness in processing cereals for microbiological decontamination, insect control, and changes in grain quality is given in the current article. Discussions are held over several variables that affect the ozone treatment process, including grain bed thickness, temperature, moisture content, medium pH, and concentration. Since ozone treatment uses the oxidation principle, the finished product is guaranteed to be both micro-biologically secure and shelf-stable. In order to preserve the quality of cereal and its products, ozone technology appears to be a promising one.
|Keywords : Quality , Ozonation , Decontamination , Mycotoxin , solorization|
|Title : Pigmented Rice: A Quality Food For Human Nutrition|
|Authors : Dr.Torit Baran Bagchi|
Pigmented rice had been considered as a super food since Chinese emperor's era due to its higher nutritive value as compared to white rice. Unfortunately, it is not so popular throughout the world for its unacceptable physiological traits and inferior physical quality of the grain. But it is rich in many bioactive molecules, which is directly associated with health benefits of human beings. The present review paper mainly focuses on biochemistry and molecular biology of nutritional compounds as well as sensory studies of pigmented rice. It also revealed the genetic approach for the improvement of the grain qualities. Pigmented rice is rich in antioxidants like phenolics, oryzanol, vitamins and minerals in some cases. They are poor in head rice recovery and generally low amylose content. Due to lower amylose content, the grains are waxy in nature and therefore, it can be utilised for the preparation of many rice based products.
|Keywords : Pigmented Rice , Nutrition , Sensory , Quality , Genetics|
|Title : Comparative study of some growth attributies of two varieties of Citrullus Lanatus Thunb. (Water Melon) cultivated in Umudike Abia State Nigeria|
|Authors : Kelechukwu Chris Egbucha,Duke Nduka Aghale,N. Umeoka,Richards Ibiam|
Four growth attributes from two varieties of the vegetable crop Citrullus lanatus Thunb. (Water melon) cultivated in Umudike, Abia State of Nigeria were studied as the crops were growing on the field. Seeds of the two varieties viz. Wantoma60 and Raider52 were obtained from an Agricultural Research Institute within the town and planted in a Randomized Complete Block Design within the Botanical Garden of the Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike. Data on number of leaves, number of branches, vine length and number of internodes were collected from the growing plants of the two varieties. Student t-test statistical analysis tool was employed in analyzing and comparing the mean values of data. In all four parameters measured significant differences were recorded between the varieties at P < 0.05. Variety Wantoma60 performed higher than variety Raider52 in all parameters measured. The implication of the result is that variety Wantoma60 mmay be better adapted to grow vegetatively than variety Raider 52 in the climatic and edaphic conditions of Umudike south-east Nigeria.
|Keywords : Vine length , internode , carotenoid , chlorophyll , edaphic , t-value|
|Title : Nutritional and Phytochemical content of indigenous leafy vegetables consumed in Botswana|
|Authors : Sarah Tshepho Pona Matenge,Jiazhou Li,Samuel Apau,Roy Tapera|
Plant materials especially green leafy vegetables contain nutrients and phytochemicals whose consumption has been associated with protecting the human body from chronic diseases. With the aim to promote the utilisation of indigenous leafy vegetables commonly consumed in Botswana, nutrient and phytochemical composition of three leafy vegetables: Amaranth (Amarunthus spp.), Spider plant (Cleome gynandra), and Cowpea leaves (Vigna unguiculata) were evaluated. The moisture content of the vegetables was high ranging from (84.1 ± 0.05 (Amarunthus spp.) to 88.8 ± 0.10% wet basis (Cleome gynandra). The ash content ranged between 1.90 ± 0.06 % (Amarunthus spp.) and 3.0 ± 0.04 % (Cleome gynandra). All the leafy indigenous vegetables were found to be poor sources of protein, fat and fibre. The total phenolics ranged from 10.4 ± 0.5 to 40.4 ± 0.11 mg/g DW. Amarunthus spp. had the highest phenolic content (40.4 ± 0.11mg/g DW). 3,4-dihydroxbenzoic, chlorogenic and ferulic acids were found to be present in Amaranthus spp., 3,4-dihydroxbenzoic, 4-hydroxbenzoic, p-coumaric and ferulic acids where found in Vigna unguiculata whilst vanillic, chlorogenic and ferulic acids were found in Cleome gynandra. Ferulic acid appeared in all the samples analysed, however, chlorogenic acid was the most abundant. The results from the study emphasize the role of these vegetables as a source of nutrients and polyphenols which could contribute to their health promoting properties and offer enormous opportunities for the functional food industry.
|Keywords : Indigenous leafy vegetables , Phenolic compounds , HPLC , Proximate analysis , Vigna unguiculata , Cleome gynandra , Amarunthus spp.|
|Title : Sensory Evaluation and Acceptability of Soy -yogurt with Different Grouping of Treatments|
|Authors : Amjad Raeisi,Vahid Farshbaf Derhami,Ali Hosseini ,Sajjad Dehghani|
Yoghurt produced from soy milk are considered to have poor consumer acceptability and sensory attributes. Development in flavor and texture of soy milk yogurt needs a grouping of treatments. The present study employed some treatments including thermal, added flavor essence, sweetener, and animal's milk-based products to develop soy milk yoghurt. Proximate analysis and consumer studies were carried out on the 10 soy milk yogurt formulations. The current study proposed that Gorgan 3 soybean variety created better soy yogurt than Pershing variety. By adding animal's milk-based products on soy yogurt can be improved taste and also make a good texture. Adding fruit (banana and orange) flavor essences and colors with sweetener (sucrose) increases the reception of the soy yogurt. Samples of soy yogurt formulations with the most preferred sensory attributes were the samples containing 1% skimmed milk powder, 2% sucrose with orange flavor essence, and 2% sucrose with banana flavor essence.
|Keywords : Flavor essences , Sensory evaluation , Soy-yogurt , Sweetener|
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